Management of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

Although widely used, the evidence base for anti-arrhythmic drugs is limited. Beta-blockers are theoretically sound, yet their efficacy in reducing arrhythmic risk is not robust. Additionally, the impact of sotalol and amiodarone is inconsistent with studies reporting contradictory results. Emerging evidence suggests that combining flecainide and bisoprolol may be efficacious.

Radiofrequency ablation has shown some potential in disrupting ventricular tachycardia circuits, with combined endo and epicardial ablation yielding better results which could be considered at the index procedure. In addition, stereotactic radiotherapy may be a future option that can decrease arrhythmias beyond simple scar formation by altering levels of Nav1.5 channels, Connexin 43 and Wnt signalling, potentially modifying myocardial fibrosis.

Future therapies, such as adenoviruses and GSk3b modulation, are still in early-stage research. While implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation is a key intervention for reducing arrhythmic death, the risks of inappropriate shocks and device complications must be carefully considered.